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Marketing, Communications, & Arts

The information below provides an overview of the marketing, communications, and arts industries. The intent is to provide you with a path for reaching your career goals. Consider this a step-by-step guide that can be used as a starting point for your career.

Marketing and Brand Management

Overview of Brand Management: The process of maintaining, improving, and upholding a brand so that the name is associated with positive results. Brand management involves a number of important aspects such as cost, customer satisfaction, in-store presentation, and competition. Brand management is built on a marketing foundation, but focuses directly on the brand and how that brand can remain favorable to customers. Proper brand management can result in higher sales of not only one product, but on other products associated with that brand. For example, if a customer loves Pillsbury biscuits and trust the brand, he or she is more likely to try other products offered by the company such as chocolate chip cookies. Source:

Overview of Marketing: Marketing is the wide range of activities involved in making sure that you're continuing to meet the needs of your customers and getting value in return. Marketing is usually focused on one product or service. Thus, a marketing plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. Marketing activities include "inbound marketing," such as market research to find out, for example, what groups of potential customers exist, what their needs are, which of those needs you can meet, how you should meet them, etc. Inbound marketing also includes analyzing the competition, positioning your new product or service (finding your market niche), and pricing your products and services. "Outbound marketing" includes promoting a product through continued advertising, promotions, public relations and sales. Source:


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Overview of Advertising Field: Advertising is bringing a product (or service) to the attention of potential and current customers. Advertising is focused on one particular product or service. Thus, an advertising plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, etc. Source:

What is an Advertising Agency: Firm that (1) creates new promotional ideas, (2) designs print, radio, television, and internet advertisements, (3) books advertisement space and time, (4) plans and conducts advertising campaigns, (5) commissions research and surveys, and (6) provides other such services that help a client in entering and succeeding in a chosen market. In general, advertising agencies are not deemed agents of the advertisers, because they act as principals for the services they buy on behalf of their clients. Source:


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Public Relations and Corporate Communications

Overview of Public Relations: Public relations includes ongoing activities to ensure the overall company has a strong public image. Public relations activities include helping the public to understand the company and its products. Often, public relations are conducted through the media that is, newspapers, television, magazines, etc. As noted above, public relations is often considered as one of the primary activities included in promotions. Source:


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Overview of Fashion Industry: New York City is often seen as the heart of the U.S. fashion and apparel industry, and almost 75 percent of salaried fashion designers are employed there. But California, Georgia, and North Carolina account for about 44 percent of all workers in the textile industry. The manufacturing side of the industry includes workers who produce apparel such as those who use patterns to cut a variety of textiles into apparel's individual pieces, and assemblers, sewers, pressers, and inspectors to create the apparel from the textile pattern pieces. Clothing production also requires the support of workers that include fashion designers to design the article of clothing; patternmakers to draw and construct a pattern for the garment based on the designer's specifications; merchandisers and retail buyers who place the apparel in stores; and retail salespeople who sell the finished garment to consumers. Others who work in the fashion and apparel industry include fashion models, marketing and advertising professionals, and administrative and support staff. As of 2010, slightly more than 7,800 private business establishments in the apparel manufacturing industry employed around 158,000 workers.

The major functions of retailing may be divided into five categories: merchandising and buying, store operations, sales promotion and advertising, bookkeeping and accounting, and personnel. Merchandising and buying determines the assortment and amount of merchandise to be sold, displayed, or stocked in a business's shop. Store operations workers maintain the retailer’s building. Sales promotion and advertising informs customers and potential customers about the available goods and services. Bookkeeping and accounting workers keep records of money spent and received, as well as records of payrolls, taxes, and money due from customers. The personnel department staffs the store with qualified employees. Source:

Resources: National Retail Federation

Retail Career Road Map

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Media and Journalism

Overview of Media and Journalism: The media and journalism industry is rapidly evolving, as digital tools and news outlets change the way people digest media and get their news. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates about 51,700 Americans are working as reporters, including freelance journalists. Of that, 44% work for newspapers, 20% for broadcast television, 5% radio, and 8% in other information services. Digital platforms have become a news source for 4 in 10 Americans, and 17% of Americans get news from smart phones, tablets, and other mobile devices. All of these outlets require content generated by journalists- reporters, correspondents, and news analysts- which is assigned and processed by editors. For the period from 2012 to 2022, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a 13 percent overall reduction in the workforce of journalists with an 8 percent decline for those employed by newspapers. The outlook is better in broadcasting, where the workforce of journalists over this same period is projected to expand by about 6 percent, but even that growth is below the average for all industries. Even better is the outlook in the digital information industry, where 14 percent growth is projected for reporters and correspondents. Technology may create opportunities for new reporting techniques. For example, reporters may be able to create innovative stories by analyzing massive data sets ("big data"), and news photographers and videographers may employ miniature drone aircraft to obtain visual images from novel angles. Source: Vault, 2015


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Digital Media and Design

Overview of Digtial Media and Design: Digital marketing and advertising workers use their knowledge of advertising, marketing, technology, computers, the Internet, and other types of digital media to help companies promote digital products and services. This method is often referred to as e-marketing. Some larger companies may have an in-house staff of advertising and marketing professionals, though many smaller or start-up companies often turn to freelance workers or a consulting agency for their needs. Source: Vault, 2016


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Arts Management

What is Arts Management?

Arts Management is the business of the arts – most often non-profit organizations that work with various forms of the arts, such as museums, theatres, performance spaces, galleries, historical sites, studios, or educational programs. People working in arts management are immersed in the "business" of art: fundraising & development, education programming, marketing & advertising, finance & accounting, event planning and other operational functions.

Online Career Resources

American Alliance of Museums

New York Foundation for the Arts

National Guild for Community Arts Education

Virginia Association of Museums

Americans for the Arts

Association of Performing Arts Presenters


Interested in a career in music? There are a lot of avenues to pursue and we encourage you to explore your options with career services. Make an appointment with a career advisor to explore the music industry and see what areas fit your interests and skills! 

Music Industry/Music Business 

There are many roles with a business focus within the music industry from accountants to account managers. Some possible career options in music business include: artist relations managers, business managers (personal or label/company), company managers, artistic directors, marketing/communications, promoters, operations coordinators (tour/festival/event), entertainment law, contractors, or agents. 

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Music production generally includes positions related to writing, engineering, and of course, producing music/film/tv. Check out these possible career avenues: audio engineer, ADR recordist, copyist, concert tech, field/studio recordist, live sound engineer, mixing engineer, music editor, or studio tech.

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If performance is your forte there are many ways to pursue a full-time or part-time career in musical performance. Consider some of the following career options: band member, accompanist, orchestral musician, studio musician, teacher/professor, ensemble leaders, cruise ship musician, freelance musician, session musician, or touring musician.

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