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Marketing, Communications, & Arts

The information below provides an overview of the marketing, communications, and arts industries. The intent is to provide you with a path for reaching your career goals. Consider this a step-by-step guide that can be used as a starting point for your career.

Marketing and Brand Management

Overview of Brand Management: The process of maintaining, improving, and upholding a brand so that the name is associated with positive results. Brand management involves a number of important aspects such as cost, customer satisfaction, in-store presentation, and competition. Brand management is built on a marketing foundation, but focuses directly on the brand and how that brand can remain favorable to customers. Proper brand management can result in higher sales of not only one product, but on other products associated with that brand. For example, if a customer loves Pillsbury biscuits and trust the brand, he or she is more likely to try other products offered by the company such as chocolate chip cookies. Source: businessdictionary.com

Overview of Marketing: Marketing is the wide range of activities involved in making sure that you're continuing to meet the needs of your customers and getting value in return. Marketing is usually focused on one product or service. Thus, a marketing plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. Marketing activities include "inbound marketing," such as market research to find out, for example, what groups of potential customers exist, what their needs are, which of those needs you can meet, how you should meet them, etc. Inbound marketing also includes analyzing the competition, positioning your new product or service (finding your market niche), and pricing your products and services. "Outbound marketing" includes promoting a product through continued advertising, promotions, public relations and sales. Source: managementhelp.org

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Advertising

Overview of Advertising Field: Advertising is bringing a product (or service) to the attention of potential and current customers. Advertising is focused on one particular product or service. Thus, an advertising plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, etc. Source: managementhelp.org

What is an Advertising Agency: Firm that (1) creates new promotional ideas, (2) designs print, radio, television, and internet advertisements, (3) books advertisement space and time, (4) plans and conducts advertising campaigns, (5) commissions research and surveys, and (6) provides other such services that help a client in entering and succeeding in a chosen market. In general, advertising agencies are not deemed agents of the advertisers, because they act as principals for the services they buy on behalf of their clients. Source: businessdictionary.com

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Public Relations and Corporate Communications

Overview of Public Relations: Public relations includes ongoing activities to ensure the overall company has a strong public image. Public relations activities include helping the public to understand the company and its products. Often, public relations are conducted through the media that is, newspapers, television, magazines, etc. As noted above, public relations is often considered as one of the primary activities included in promotions. Source: managementhelp.org

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Fashion

Overview of Fashion Industry: New York City is often seen as the heart of the U.S. fashion and apparel industry, and almost 75 percent of salaried fashion designers are employed there. But California, Georgia, and North Carolina account for about 44 percent of all workers in the textile industry. The manufacturing side of the industry includes workers who produce apparel such as those who use patterns to cut a variety of textiles into apparel's individual pieces, and assemblers, sewers, pressers, and inspectors to create the apparel from the textile pattern pieces. Clothing production also requires the support of workers that include fashion designers to design the article of clothing; patternmakers to draw and construct a pattern for the garment based on the designer's specifications; merchandisers and retail buyers who place the apparel in stores; and retail salespeople who sell the finished garment to consumers. Others who work in the fashion and apparel industry include fashion models, marketing and advertising professionals, and administrative and support staff. As of 2010, slightly more than 7,800 private business establishments in the apparel manufacturing industry employed around 158,000 workers.

The major functions of retailing may be divided into five categories: merchandising and buying, store operations, sales promotion and advertising, bookkeeping and accounting, and personnel. Merchandising and buying determines the assortment and amount of merchandise to be sold, displayed, or stocked in a business's shop. Store operations workers maintain the retailer’s building. Sales promotion and advertising informs customers and potential customers about the available goods and services. Bookkeeping and accounting workers keep records of money spent and received, as well as records of payrolls, taxes, and money due from customers. The personnel department staffs the store with qualified employees. Source: vault.com

Resources: National Retail Federation

Retail Career Road Map

Click on the image to view/print.

Example Careers: http://www.fashioncareerstips.com/fields-within-fashion.html

Media and Journalism

Overview of Media and Journalism: The media and journalism industry is rapidly evolving, as digital tools and news outlets change the way people digest media and get their news. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates about 51,700 Americans are working as reporters, including freelance journalists. Of that, 44% work for newspapers, 20% for broadcast television, 5% radio, and 8% in other information services. Digital platforms have become a news source for 4 in 10 Americans, and 17% of Americans get news from smart phones, tablets, and other mobile devices. All of these outlets require content generated by journalists- reporters, correspondents, and news analysts- which is assigned and processed by editors. For the period from 2012 to 2022, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a 13 percent overall reduction in the workforce of journalists with an 8 percent decline for those employed by newspapers. The outlook is better in broadcasting, where the workforce of journalists over this same period is projected to expand by about 6 percent, but even that growth is below the average for all industries. Even better is the outlook in the digital information industry, where 14 percent growth is projected for reporters and correspondents. Technology may create opportunities for new reporting techniques. For example, reporters may be able to create innovative stories by analyzing massive data sets ("big data"), and news photographers and videographers may employ miniature drone aircraft to obtain visual images from novel angles. Source: Vault, 2015

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Digital Media and Design

Overview of Digtial Media and Design: Digital marketing and advertising workers use their knowledge of advertising, marketing, technology, computers, the Internet, and other types of digital media to help companies promote digital products and services. This method is often referred to as e-marketing. Some larger companies may have an in-house staff of advertising and marketing professionals, though many smaller or start-up companies often turn to freelance workers or a consulting agency for their needs. Source: Vault, 2016

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Arts

What is Arts Management?

Arts Management is the business of the arts – most often non-profit organizations that work with various forms of the arts, such as museums, theatres, performance spaces, galleries, historical sites, studios, or educational programs. People working in arts management are immersed in the "business" of art: fundraising & development, education programming, marketing & advertising, finance & accounting, event planning and other operational functions.

Skill Set

You will need a passion for art along with skills that allow you to contribute to the success of the organization. This can include organizational skills, business knowledge, client relations experience, and strong written and oral communications experience. For many business roles within the arts like accounting or finance, you will need functional specific education and/or experience.

While at UR, look for opportunities on campus at the Modlin Center and the various libraries and museums.  ArtSearch – contact Career Services for access to the center’s subscription or sign up for a student subscription. http://www.tcg.org/artsearch/index.cfm.

Internships

Arts management positions are as varied as the arts and the organizations that bring the arts to the public. There are structured internship programs that exist at arts organizations for a variety of business functions (education, development, and marketing) with deadlines that may begin as early as mid-fall semester extending through late spring.

Students interested in this field should volunteer, work part-time, intern and shadow within the arts management industry. Find an organization that you are really interested in and inquire about volunteering. In many cases, volunteers are at the top of the list for internships and other full-time opportunities because of their familiarity with an organization.

Entry Level Full-time Opportunities

Entry level positions in arts management include:

Archivists

Event planner

Museum staff

Art show coordinator

Fundraising & grant writing

Research & policy analyst

Curator

Historian

Technology coordinator

Education coordinator

Media Relations

Volunteer coordinator

There are also many positions available in business departments like marketing, accounting, and human resources. 

Salary Expectations

Salaries vary depending on the sector, the organization, the geographic region, and the skill of the candidate. Click here to view the National Association of Colleges and Employers salary resources. There is not much room for salary negotiation at the entry-point of any career path, and most organizations have benchmarked salaries with their competitors.

Recruiting Timeline

Many organizations and departments typically do not have structured full-time recruiting programs, and positions become open as needed. In many situations you should apply directly via the organization's web site.

Networking is extremely important in this field, so building your network and looking for jobs in the arts management field should begin in your junior year and continue into senior year and the summer after you graduate.

Interviewing Process

The interviewing process typically begins with a behavioral screening interview.  Additional interviews may be more function-specific, delving into your area of expertise. Positions in more creative areas may require evidence of your experience in a specific area of art; for example visual arts positions may require portfolios, while positions in the music industry may delve deeper into your musical knowledge. If you are interviewing for a business-related position, you may be asked questions specific to your area of business expertise.  It is important that you prepare for all interviews. UR Career Services can provide you with preparation tools and mock interviews to help you put your best foot forward in the interview process.

Campus Resources for a Career in Arts Management

*Some resources have eligibility requirements. Review program websites or contact the program directly for details.

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

Explore

Film Guild

X

X

X

X

Open Air Arts Club

X

X

X

X

Photography Club

X

X

X

X

University Players

X

X

X

X

Alumni Informational Interviews

X

X

X

X

Wellness 090: Career Exploration

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepare

Resume Review Workshop

X

X

 

 

Mock Interview & Interview Workshops

X

X

X

X

Wellness 090: Life & Career after UR

 

 

X

X

Company Information Sessions

X

X

X

 

Internship/Externship

 

X

X

 

 

Evening of Etiquette

 

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

Connect

UR Career Expos

X

X

X

X

On-Campus Interviews (Recruiting)

X

X

Campus Resources for a Career in Arts Management-Defined

Alumni Informational Interviews
Most UR alumni are willing to talk with you and share insights about their industry and career path via informational interviews. After meeting alumni at career and networking events, you can reach out to them directly to schedule a 30 minute informational interview. You can also meet alumni via the Alumni Informational Interview Program. The program is designed to invite a group of University of Richmond alumni to share the Richmond experience with applicants in target cities throughout the country.

Company Information Sessions
Many of UR’s partner organizations provide Company Information Sessions on campus. In these sessions, company representatives will provide an overview of their organization and describe internships and jobs for students and recent graduates. These sessions are a great way for you to learn about a company, job function, and industry and allow you the opportunity to ask questions and network with professionals. 

Evening of Etiquette
Network with UR alumni to learn how to make a good impression during a business meal. Practice your networking skills as you learn to engage someone in conversation, and yes, even use the correct fork. 

Film Guild
Film Guild serves as a place for students to learn about film production outside of the classroom. The cooperative environment allows students of all experience levels to learn about filming, recording sound, and editing through workshops and hands-on experience. Members of the club work together to create new and interesting film projects. Film Guild offers the opportunity to discuss the technology, language and art of filmmaking among peers.

Internship/Externship
Internships are opportunities for you to gain hands-on experience in an occupation or profession of interest to you. Internships are usually 8-10 week experiences during the summer of your junior year, and can be paid or unpaid. Externships are often shorter term experiences during the summer of your sophomore year where you may be learning about an organization or industry. Both experiences are a good way for you to try out different industries and job functions.

Mock Interview/Interview Workshops
Prepare for the interview process by attending a Career Services sponsored interviewing workshop, where you will hear about the interview process and learn tactics for excelling in a behavioral interview. Schedule a one-on-one mock interview with a career advisor to practice your interview skills. 

On-Campus Interviews (Recruiting)
Many of UR’s partner organizations conduct interviews for externships, internships, and full-time jobs on campus via Career Services. These opportunities are posted by the employers on SpiderConnect, where you will apply for the job, and if selected, schedule an interview.

Open Air Arts Club
Open Air Arts Club is a place for students with an interest in poetry, prose, music, dance, songwriting, visual art, photography, etc. to improve your work through weekly workshops. At bi-weekly workshops, you will present a piece in progress and other members will critique the piece and offer suggestions. Then, one Saturday every month, you will have the opportunity to present/perform your work for friends at the OOAC coffeehouses.

Photography Club
Photography Club is an inclusive community that loves taking photos where you can; learn photography basics, improve skills, or to just have a fun time with people of similar interests.

Resume Review Workshops
UR Career Services holds workshops where you can learn about the basics of resume writing and get your resumes reviewed by peer advisors and career advisers.

University Players
The University Players provide practical experience in a wide variety of theatrical activities; coordinating the participation of members as performers, designers, and crew on department and student productions; promoting the arts at the University of Richmond, and participating in community service activities.

UR Career Expo
The Spider Career Expos allows students and alumni to connect with full-time and internship opportunities. Approximately 50 organizations and more than 300 students attend annually. The expos are open to students in all majors and class years.

Wellness 090 Career Exploration
Students who complete Career Exploration will: Learn about and practice using Career Services resources, in person and online; Develop self-awareness through use of personality and values assessment tools; Gain the skills necessary to create well-written resumes and cover letters; Learn the basics of using LinkedIn; Complete an informational interview with a professional working in an industry of interest; Develop strategies for considering and selecting a major(s).

Wellness 090 Life & Career After UR 
Students who complete Life and Careers will: Learn about and practice using Career Services tools and resources, in person and online; Increase self-awareness through occupational and values assessment exercises; Obtain the skills necessary to create tailored, well-written resumes and cover letters; Learn strategies for maximizing use of LinkedIn to manage a professional network; Complete an out-of-class career development exercise relevant to career goals and needs.

Online Career Resources

American Alliance of Museums

New York Foundation for the Arts

National Guild for Community Arts Education

Virginia Association of Museums

Americans for the Arts

Dance USA

Association of Performing Arts Presenters

Hire Culture

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